Briefly discuss the role of culture (historically and currently) in personality study. Which theories best incorporate the role of culture and which do not?

This test (worth 50% of your overall grade) consists of five essay questions, to be answered in full sentences. Each essay question is worth 4 marks: 3 for content (1 point per item: a, b, c), and 1 point for spelling, grammar, and clarity). As a take-home test, your essay should be free of spelling errors to earn full marks, and graders may award part-marks if answers are incomplete.

Remember that all work MUST be independent – don’t quote from the text or lectures; just summarize those ideas using your own words. Answers lifted verbatim from the text will earn a zero.

Each essay question (including parts a, b, c) should not exceed 400 words total; be sure to include the word count at the top of each essay (graders will stop reading at word #401). The total word limit for this exam (5 essays of 400 words each) is thus 2000 words.

Given the limited word-count, no special formatting (such as margin size or single/double spacing) is required; and there is no need to set up your essay with either an introduction or conclusion – just get right to it…

Individual essays can be entered either as a text submission or can be saved to Word or PDF format and uploaded to Blackboard under Resources.

Essays must be submitted prior to 12 noon (Eastern Daylight Time) on Friday, October 23rd; late submissions will incur a 10% deduction per calendar day.

If you wish to make changes to your submission, then simply upload a new file to Blackboard; but ensure you do this before the deadline else you will incur those same penalties.

I will build a ‘Frequently Asked Questions’ page under Announcements — check in before you But feel free to email if you have a question.

PART-1 (400 words)

a) Briefly discuss the role of culture (historically and currently) in personality study. Which theories best incorporate the role of culture and which do not?

b) In your own words, define psychobiography — what can be learned from an in-depth case study analysis of remarkable individuals? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the case study approach?

c) In your own words, define the six criteria of evaluation; which are the most stringent criteria that must be scrutinized before accepting a theory?

PART-2 (400 words)

a) Outline the dynamics among the structures of the Freudian psyche using an original example, and explain what theoretical aspects in such a system remained inadequate after years of theorizing (and what eventually filled this gulf).

b) Discuss Silverman’s experiments and findings on subliminal psychodynamic activation.

c) Compare the theoretical evaluations of both Freud and Erikson.

PART 3 (400 words)

a) In your own words, define the term ‘collective unconscious’ and explain its place in the Jungian model of the psyche. Why was this such an important contribution to the field of personality?

b) Briefly explain Jung’s typological model. What are the implications toward achieving wholeness once you know your type? Then explain how they are assessed, and differentiate between dominant and auxiliary functions.

c) How were the theories of Freud and Jung heavily informed by Ancient Greek thinkers?

PART-4 (400 words)

a) Erikson’s theory was chiefly clinical in origin, but recent attempts by James Marcia have been made to test the theory for its empirical merit. In your own words, summarize the identity status paradigm and use an original example (not from the book) to illustrate its component parts.

b) In your own words, define Adler’s idea of the creative self and offer an original example. What was so revolutionary about this concept, and who would it later influence (and how)?

c) Compare and contrast Freud’s typology to Adler’s.

PART-5 (400 words)

a) Compare and contrast Horney’s three neurotic solutions, providing an original example for each. How might Horney characterize her own solutions in her early life?

b) In your own words, describe the relational approach to personality development. How was object relations theory guided by Horney’s notion of anxiety and hostility? How did object relations theory lay the groundwork for later discussions on attachment style?

c) In your own words, define ‘self-silencing’ and provide an original example. Then summarize current research as it relates to both sex differences and depression.


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