Anselm’s Ontological Argument

Anselm’s Ontological Argument

Understanding the Possibility of existence of God

Anselm’s ontological argument advocates for the existence of a Supreme Being. His motive is to prove that there is God, a being who is supreme and superior to other beings (Malcolm 42). He disproves those individuals who deny Gods existence. The individuals understand the statement of a Supreme Being existence but fail to accept His existence. Anselm’s motive is to prove that understanding and failing to accept Gods existence is inconsistent. An individual who knows God exists can be directed to see God’s existence. According to Anselm, an atheist not only is he or she erroneous but also not consistent (Malcolm 45).

Anselm defines God as an unlimited being who cannot be surpassed, and no idea or thought is beyond Him. He points out that a foolish individual perceives in his heart that God is not there.  The individual listens to the references of God, comprehends them and whatever he comprehends remains in his mind. He fails to comprehend the actual existence of God. It shows that a foolish individual has a clear understanding of God but is not ready and willing to accept His existence (Malcolm 45). Analysing Anselm’s remarks comprehend what he hears and whatever he comprehends remains in his mind. He purports to relate the comprehension as a place and assumes that if one comprehends references about God, then God surely exists in his or her mind.

Anselm exclaimed that it was one thing to comprehend the existence of an article on one’s mind and for one to have realistic comprehension. For instance, one may think about fairies, dragons, and other mythical beings. One may speak of having an idea about these creatures. Anselm tries to unravel that there is a deviation between an object existing in one’s comprehension and believing in its existence. Fairies and dragons may exist in one’s comprehension but may not believe in their existence (Luis Pojman 57).

Anselm goes further to point out that the Supreme Being exists both in mind and in reality. He argues that God is not constrained to our mere understanding but truly exists in reality (Malcolm 47). For instance, fairies and dragons are creatures that are in mind alone; George Bush is present both in the mind and reality; aliens and other undiscovered wonders reside in the reality segment but do not present themselves in the comprehension segment because no being has pictured them on their minds.

In the case of the foolish individual, God exists in mind and not in reality. Contrary to this, God can exist both in mind and in reality. For instance, we can opt to imagine God does not exist though we do not claim it to be true. It is, therefore, most important for something to be in reality than for it to be in the mind of a person (Luis Pojman 59). When a person can acknowledge the existence of God in real life even if he or she does not physically see Him, it becomes easier to live since he or she will have limited questions about God.

We are made to believe a superhuman can be perceived in mind to appear more powerful, but this is not logical. Therefore, God cannot be only in the mind of a person, and it’s foolish to think that because God exists in real life as well as in mind. There is the existence of a being that is more powerful than what the mind can perceive and is existent in both the mind and in reality. The mind cannot be able to comprehend things that are beyond its ability since God is greater than the perception of a person.

Absurdity reduction is choosing a contradicting option or an opposite when assuming a conclusion. Assumption means the conclusion that has been drawn by an individual is an unwarrantable claim and proof is not available. The contradicting function leads to the absurd nature. Anselm utilized the absurdity reduction to explain and support his stand on the existence of a Supreme Being. Anselm utilized the opposite of what he aimed to prove by pointing out that if an object only existed solely in mind but not believed to exist in the real world, that object is believed to have superiority than it has.

An object that exists in the understanding solely has lower significance, but the one in the real world is at its perfection. God can, therefore, be believed to be better, perfect and supreme. Absurdity is brought out where an object which is believed to be better and perfect than anything is believed to be better than it. In the case where a supreme being exists then, he is perceived to be present in all existence. God is referred to as the perfect being in the universe (Malcolm 59). The notion is correct, and so His greatness is similar in other forms of existence. God is perfect, and human beings should acknowledge that since the proof is openly available even in nature.

Argument for the soundness of St. Anselm’s Ontological Argument

The argument makes sense in that there is proof that God exists. It can be related to the belief in aliens and dragons. People do believe that aliens and dragons existed and still exist up to date even if they have never seen them. Believing in the existence of God is all about having faith in the unraveled. God manifests His power in many ways such as the rising and setting of the sun, seasons and other natural occurrences. If there were no supreme being controlling the world, then there would be no explanation of nature. It can be related to organizational structure and institutions such as schools where we have managers and school heads respectively.

If, for instance, there are no leaders, then the institutions are bound to collapse since there will be no set objectives and goals that will enable the smooth running of operations in these settings. Chaos and disorganization will be rampant, and no success can be achieved. It is the same case with nature, where, there must be someone who is controlling it to minimize calamities. It is therefore stupid not to believe in the existence of God. The existence of God can also be proven by concepts of life, death, and belief in eternal life after death.

The air that we breathe does not just happen to exist by coincidence, growth, and maturity of living things has to be controlled by someone. Human beings cannot be able to control the existence of these things. Death is a concept that can be used to show the superiority of God. It means that there is a being that controls life in living things in that there is the possibility of death. Human beings also did not just happen to naturally exist. In the Bible, there is a description of how God made man and plants. If God did not exist, then there would be no living things and the world would be inexistent too.

The Bible is also a clear illustration of the existence of God where stories narrated give a clear overview of the power of God. For instance, how God saved the Israelites from misery in Egypt. We see how God uses people to accomplish his missions. Those who did not believe or listen to God received punishments such as king Nebuchadnezzar who ate grass for years. This shows the supreme power of God and His existence. If God did not exist, then mysterious things that we see today would not be happening. It is all about the faith we put into believing in God that makes God exist in our lives.

I agree with the theory of Anselm that it is stupid to believe in something that only exists in our minds and not in reality. The mind may not be able to comprehend the nature of God because it is something that has no limit and trying to figure out where God came from or how He sustains the world is absurd. Anselm explains the nature of God as someone whose power cannot be perceived by normal human beings.

Anselm’s argument is impressive and rigid in that it can convince the reader about the existence of God. Therefore, the power of God is manifested everywhere in our daily lives, and human beings should acknowledge the existence of a superior being which controls the whole world, who is God since no man can control nature nor life and death other than a supernatural being.

Work Cited

Malcolm, Norman. “Anselm’s ontological arguments.”The Philosophical Review 69.1 (1960): 41-62.

Luis Pojman, Robert Solomon, Michael Rea. Encountering The Real: Faith and Philosophical Enquiry. Ohio: Cengage Learning, 2013.


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US Executive Compensation

US Executive Compensation

The recognition that CEOs earn excessively has for some time been a sore spot in the Wall Street versus Main Street wage disparity debate. The greatest point of concern, in this case, is whether the pay difference between the CEO makes a difference or can be translated to performance.  As Americans put a greater amount of their retirement investment funds in money markets through 401k plans are progressively presented to trade on an open market organization. What’s more, proper compensation is viewed as a key gauge of whether an organization is being kept running to the greatest advantage of investors. I believe the U.S. Executive are not paid more considering their duties responsibilities and the role they play in the economy.

The argument is confirmed by the report of a study that revealed that most             American population trust that executives are underpaid in relations to the average worker. Just 16% of the executive believe that they are remunerated a suitable sum (Ferracone, 2013). While reactions change by political association, they remain to a great extent negative. Just a quarter of Republicans trusts executives have remunerated the right sum about the average worker, contrasted with Democrats at 16% as well as Independents at 11%. About Americans 62% trust that there is a standard amount that executives ought to be compensated with respect to the common labor notwithstanding the organization together with its financial outcome (Ferracone, 2013). Notably, a larger part of every political group believes that executive remuneration ought to have a ceiling to some extent. However, 52% of Republicans are fairly more averse to accept this position compared to either Democrats at 66% or the Independents at 64% (Frydman & Papanikolaou, 2015).

Nevertheless, high CEO pay can indicate that an organization’s directorate which sets proper compensation is loaded with insiders and friends. Entrenched administration impacts the board into paying good packages as many people could put it (Frydman & Papanikolaou, 2015). Then again, corporate boards require smart, capable individuals driving their organizations, boosting value as well as creating the job and if these individuals are hard to find but are sought after, market force direct that they will be generously compensated.

In any case, people, in general, have little comprehension of the complexities of executive compensation, including the fact that a bit of a CEO’s compensation comes not in cash form but rather in stock. On the other side, many do not understand that the stunning headlines about CEO paychecks usually are given numbers that are appraisals of the estimation of an official’s compensation bundle and not what the official brings home in a given year (Ferracone, 2013). The truth is set by the Union-Tribune that reports executive remuneration differently in contrast to most media outlets, concentrating on assessable pay to better catch CEO salary.

It shows the way that no one truly knows how to judge a CEO’s worth. Since the official is employed by a top managerial staff that is hypothetically responsible to an organization’s investors, it appears like CEO pay ought to have a remark with stock cost. Though, no one needs a CEO to concentrate only on short-term stock issues and disregard the company’s long-term position (Ferracone, 2013). Regardless of the possibility that you do focus on share costs, the significant issues must be outlined and the outright returns must be matched to them. Returns in respect to the market as a whole are also critical as well as returns in respect to the industry when setting the executives salary.

In conclusion, the executive worth is not justified since at any given point it is difficult to apportion his appropriate compensation since you have to outweigh several factors rather than looking into one aspect of his role. Therefore, there is the need for mind change in ensuring that we advocate for more pay than looking into his speculated worth by market dealers and media to attract the investors.


Ferracone, R. A. (2013). Fair pay, fair play: Aligning executive performance and pay. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Frydman, C., & Papanikolaou, D. (2015). In Search of Ideas: Technological Innovation and Executive Pay Inequality. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.


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United States Immigration Policy

US Immigration Policy

The relationship between America and other countries including Mexico will be harmed by the immigration policies. Currently, the large part of Mexico borders the United States. The two countries are also believed to share a deep history with ups and downs in the form of collaboration, competition, cooperation and fighting among many others. Statistics show that more than $15 billion worth of goods cross the American-Mexico border in every day (Cohn, 2015).

Enactment of the immigration policy will harm not only Mexico but also the Americans at home and all over the globe. This harm will mostly be in the form of economy of both countries, cost of living (Cohn, 2015). However, the enactment of the policy also has unseen benefits in security, refugees, and the number of illegal immigrants.

Around twelve million Mexicans currently reside in the United States either legally or illegally. This number accounts for up to 15% of the Mexico’s labor force (Cohn, 2015). Due to the high number of citizens from Mexico currently residing in America, the exports from America to Mexico has increased significantly and still continues to rise. From 1993 to the year 2014, the rise amounted to over two hundred billion dollars (Cohn, 2015). However, of the number of immigrants coming to the United States from Mexico is regulated, this might affect the overall export rates to this country.

The economy of the United States might also be touched by this to a greater extent. This can be seen in that the number of tourists who visit the United States from Mexico accounts for over 27% of the total tourists (Cohn, 2015). The number is likely to drop hence the amount of revenue that was generated by the tourism sector will drastically fall (Cohn, 2015). During the past few decades, Mexico was acting as a bridge between the developing and the developed countries which had great help to the united states on issues such climate change and UN peacekeeping.

The overall workforce of America would drop. It would be essential for the United States government to reconsider the issue of massive deportation of Mexican citizens. This is because, out of the millions of people living in the United States either legally or illegally, most of them are very productive towards the economy and workforce of the states (Cohn, 2015). No single country would be expected to maintain a good working relationship with another country that has set plans to execute a massive deportation of its citizens living in that country. The average wage rate of Mexicans working in the United States is lower than the wage rate of Americans working in their country (Hanson, 2016). This makes the expenses incurred by the workforce to be lower.

The increase in the number of Mexico citizens living in America have led to increase in the amount of payments sent by these workers home. It is believed that the total remittance sent to Mexico by its citizens working in the United States accounts for about 3% of the total GDP of the country (Hanson, 2016). If legalization programs were to be put into place, the government would increase the immigrant wages by 20% (Cohn, 2015). This would, in turn, lead to more remittance being sent to the home country and thus the percentage of GDP from these people would increase (Hanson, 2016). This increase would lead to better economy of Mexico.

Few people might try to illegally cross the border if the immigrants stay in America is legalized. However, this is an area that brings about a lot of discussions as to whether or not this will happen. The government, in 1986, tried to restrict the immigrants from crossing the border from Mexico. It went to an extent of giving approvals to employers who hired undocumented workers, and also enforced the border and gave forgiveness to the immigrants who were already in the country but met certain requirements. This resulted in issuing a permanent permit to over 2.3 million Mexicans to living in the United States (Román, & Olivas, 2013). As a result of this amnesty, the amount of immigrants’ apprehension declined, but it might be that the immigrants flocking the borders were now more careful than there before.

Finally, security and better migrant labor would be enforced. If Mexicans living in America were granted the permission to legally continue with their stay here, the wages they earn would increase meaning more finances would be sent back home (Hanson, 2016). This would lead to Mexico enhancing more security at the border as it would be advantageous to them. The level of threat posed to America by illegal migration is still high. The more people try to access a country illegally, the higher the risk of attacks and national security. If there were legal reforms to accommodate these people to live legally in the United States, the threat to national security that would have been caused by illegal residence would drop


Cohn, R. L. (2015). The Effects of Immigration on the United States. Mass Migration under Sail, 190-222. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511575211.009. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226066684.003.0010

Hanson, G. H. (2016). Emigration, Labor Supply, and Earnings in Mexico. Mexican Immigration to the United States, 289-328. doi:10.7208/chicago/9780226066684.003.0010

Román, E., & Olivas, M. A. (2013). The Conflicted United States–Mexico Relationship. Those Damned Immigrants, 111-124. doi:10.18574/nyu/9780814776575.003.0005


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Using modeling during systems analysis

Using modeling during systems analysis

The kind of model I would opt for and the reasons for preferring the model

The model I would prefer; is that the paper based prescription be in practice along with the e-prescription. The reason for preferring this system is the fact even after digital data loss the patients’ prescription records can be retrieved from the papers in the files. The other reason being that paper based record keeping can be a nuisance and time consuming, the use of efficient and secure prescription databases can help fetch files faster and anywhere as long as you have access to the system (Baig & Gholamhosseini, 2013).

Short term benefits of the model to the practice.

In the case of erroneous updates, the system may be unstable, and patients may be prescribed to drugs which may exacerbate their condition (Baig & Gholamhosseini, 2013). There might be many errors roping in during the initial stage of transformation from paper-based prescription to e-prescription which keeps both physicians and patient in trouble as the pharmacists and nurses will be habituated to the existing paper-based prescription handling. This has to be taken care of by proper cross verification and quality assurance team. The adoption and integration pace of the system into the clinical industry has to be slow. The physicians may also be mistaken and fill the wrong patient’s prescription in an overlook (Baig & Gholamhosseini, 2013).

The system’s farther along benefits to the practice.

Computer systems are vulnerable to malware attacks, breakdowns, server lags due to traffic, power outages and in such scenarios and the backup will be the paper based prescriptions kept on file. Paper based prescription with the patient helps to follow the medication. The system will lead to a quicker retrieval of patients’ past prescription records and also enhance referral to other pharmacists in case the patient is far.


Baig, M. M., & Gholamhosseini, H. (2013). Smart health monitoring systems: an overview of design and modeling. Journal of medical systems, 37(2), 9898.



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The community in Utopia will be based in Sauk County. The county is located in the state of Wisconsin. The county is favorable for rural life, where agriculture will be main activity. The area also features the village way of life that will be the main focus in the utopia. The community living in the utopia will be free from hunger irrespective of the time of the year because they will be able to grow their food using the natural resources. The farmers will be using organic methods of pest control, and all pesticides will not be used. The main aim of banning chemical pesticides is to ensure that the community is free from pollution and all pollution-related health problems. Clean water will be tapped from the many rivers in the area to provide water for domestic use as well as irrigation to all the community members. All the community members will access a healthy diet considering that a variety of crops including wheat, tomatoes, potatoes, kale, and grain will be grown. Dairy farming will guarantee a stable supply of milk and beef while poultry will provide a sustainable source of eggs. Electricity will be generated using windmills and used at home for lighting, pumping water as well for grinding the grain.

Each child born in the community will be allocated a piece of land that he or she is expected to develop in future. Once a community member dies, his or her land is repossessed and becomes part of community land that will be later allocated to a newborn. The land ownership rules where each community member is allocated a piece of land until death will eliminate greed and promote equality in the community. The rules of ownership not only apply to land but also other property like houses and livestock (Levitas & Ruth 617). When a person dies, the property becomes communal and is distributed to newborns that are not necessarily from the same family as the deceased. With the property rules, corruption will be nonexistent as an individual cannot steal with the aim of making sure that his children will automatically get rich. The system of allocating land to newborns also ensures that by the time the beneficiary of the land becomes of age to start developing the land, all the children of the deceased person are adults and can move to their farms. Before the newborns mature, the land will be maintained by the community. From these rules also, there will be no dominant families as power and wealth will not be inherited. In addition to private farms maintained by individuals, there will community land that includes the land pending full possession by the newborns.

The education in the utopia community will be a talent-based and minimal emphasis on exams with all the expenses catered for by the community government. Children will spend time in the primary level where the teachers will guide them in the identification of talents. The children can later join the high school to specialize in their best talents either in sciences or arts. The education will focus on improving the community life without destroying the environment. Campus students will spend most of their time practicing their skills within the community like maintaining and fixing water systems, studying farming methods, fixing electric equipment for the Engineers and doctors offering free medical services facilitated by the government. Every community member will be in farming by maintaining his or her piece of land irrespective of his or her career for the sake of food security. Compensation will be uniform across all disciplines to further encourage students to pursue what they are best in. Although innovations will be encouraged in the education system, anything that impacts negatively on the environment or health of the community will be banned irrespective of the magnitude of its predicted effects.

With everyone having access to basic needs, the community will experience minimum cases of violence, and therefore guns and other weapons will be outlawed. The local community government will be elected semiannually with no one holding the office twice and will implement all the laws in the community. The system of government where the government officials change regularly and with representatives from all the villages and who receive the same compensation as other disciplines, will further eliminate greed for power and ensure there is justice in the community. The punishment for most offenses like theft and destruction of property will be offering free labor to the community farms for a specified period.

Men and women will be treated equally, and the rule applies to ownership of property and representation in the community government (James & Aaron 715). Although there will be normal marriage, there will be a shared responsibility in raising the children and abandoning children will be treated as a felony. In the family, there will be no specific duties for either men or women. Any individual can perform any duty based on the necessity. Marriage will not be mandatory, and respect will be accorded to both the married and the unmarried people.

Sauk County is favorable for the way of life described in the utopia given that it is a rural area and implementation of the rules will be easy.  Farming is also a common activity in the area, and everybody would be interested in being part of a community that thrives on food security and protection of natural resources.

Works Cited

James & Aaron. “Equality in a realistic utopia.” Social theory and practice 32.4 (2006): 699-724.

Levitas & Ruth. “Beyond bourgeois right: freedom, equality and Utopia in Marx and Morris.” The European Legacy 9.5 (2004): 605-618.


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VA Medical Center Change Plan

VA Medical Center Change Plan

In 2014, the Phoenix Arizona VA Medical Center was entangled in an embarrassment of hitting the national news over a scheme that was aimed at avoiding the internal rules of VA.  The internal rules required health care to be provided to veterans by VA promptly, normally within fourteen to thirty days. The scheme involved a development of a secret list, shredding evidence that was aimed at hiding the list of veterans that was waiting for medical appointments and healthcare with their primary health care specialist. Unfortunately, the employees at this facility were instructed by the administrators not to make veterans any doctor appointments within the computer system. Contrary to this when the veterans came in for an appointment, the employees entered the health information or records to the computer and did a hard copy printout through capturing the screen. The employees did not save what was put into the computer, so the veteran’s records of attendance were not traced. The veteran’s health records were collected on an electronic list that was put a secret and then the all the records showing the actual time the veteran’s appointment waiting began were destroyed (Black, Bronstein & Griffin, 2014).

According to one of the whistle-blowers and a local physician who worked at this VA (Dr. Foote) stated the hard copy that had the veteran’s demographic information on it was taken and recorded on a secret electronic list, and later the data contained in the paper was shredded. Therefore, the secret list was the only list showing that the veteran had ever been there and the staff would not delete the veteran’s names from the list until they had 14 days or less appointment time. This gave the appearance that this VA was improving greatly on their time for waiting while this was contrary to the real situation (Black, Bronstein & Griffin, 2014).

In the repercussions, the Phoenix VA has won the attention from the VA Office of Inspector General (OIG), the U.S. House Veterans Affairs Committee and Congress in Washington and they needed to find a solution to change this unethical practice quickly. After a formal investigation, the executives at the Phoenix VA Medical Center were blamed for keeping a secret list of appointments on a rundown of several veterans who were looking for healthcare services. This summary was kept up beyond anyone’s ability to see of government regulators, who were rather sent documentation that incomprehensibly underreported to what extent it took for veterans to see a primary physician. Therefore, the following paper will express how the Phoenix’s VA Medical Center can execute and adapt to change by using Kotter’s 8-Step model (Cohen & Kotter, 2012).

Sense of Urgency

Based on the VA medical center, in the sense of urgency point, one is required to develop the need for change by informing all stakeholders of the benefits of the change. This is because for evolution to effectively take effect the whole community must acknowledge that there is need to change. The sense of urgency for change at the Phoenix VA is obviously to lower the fatalities experienced in the healthcare center and to save more lives of our veterans. Many veterans use the VA healthcare due to financial constraints, and it is apparent the immoral scheme the Phoenix VA conducted with its secret list, definitely needs to be addressed quickly not to mention the lack of funding issues of the hospital.

As mentioned before, the secret list kept veteran’s on hold of an average of 115 days if not long before they could have been seen by their essential care specialist. Those long hold up times may have had dramatic critical results. According to Wagner (2014), an employee who worked at the Phoenix VA went public as a whistle-blower and stated: she was the secret list keeper for the veterans waiting for months to receive any medical attention. The employee also went ahead to accuse others of making health records alterations after breaking of the scandal as a way of hiding the death of seven veterans who lost their lives while awaiting medical care. One of the supervisors had ordered this employee to go ahead in gathering appointments requests for new patients on a weekly basis and present to her in her desk. Unfortunately her estimation as that more than one thousand veterans were sidetracked onto the secret list, which led to them being ignored for several weeks or months as their appointments could not be scheduled within less than 14 days as this was the set time by the administrators in VA. This VA Medical Center, therefore, had a difficult time when it came to meeting the increased demand for medical appointments.

According to Bronstein & Griffin (2016), CNN revealed that more than of 40 veterans passed on while waiting for medical appointments at the Phoenix, and an official investigation found the “secret waiting list” added to deaths VA authorities could have, obviously, detailed those long hold up times to the federal government, yet that could have implied missing out on bonus pays medical facilities get keeping hold up times short. What’s outrageous about the conduct at the Phoenix VA Medical Center is that as opposed to making the long hold up times open with expectations of settling the issue, executives endeavored to influence it to resemble the problems did not exist by any means. If change is implemented efficiently, there would not be an extreme loss of life at the VA medical center as experienced in the past.

Build the Guiding Team

Effective change implementation calls for effective leadership to oversee see the implementation process as well as govern the formulation of the primary objectives of the plan. As a result, the building team towards the VA Medical Center change would be best sorted if the most affected parties would have direct representation to express their recommendations. The representatives of the involved parties would be sources from the legal representatives of lawyers, executives working at the facility, military personnel, local community, healthcare professionals, FBI, and political leaders in Washington (such as the House Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, Inspector General Office, the President’s VA Secretary of Veterans Affairs). The team building process would be on a voluntary platform. This is because the change intended requires self-motivated and high willpower from all members involved.

Get the Vision Right

The Veteran Medical Center’s mission statement states “To care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and his orphan.” Whereas the vision statement is bared the responsibility of taking care of its American Veterans, where it stated that it would provide world-class healthcare with commitment and quality service, for example, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2015). However, the Medical Center failed to meet its primary objectives in offering quality service to their American Veterans. Based on the driving team towards change, developed in stage three, a lot of ideas would be generated, but the challenge is to choose the best approach to implement it. At this point, the best method is to increase oversight from the management of the medical center with the additional support from the officials in Washington. This can be done by firing executives of wrongdoing, performing continual audits, increase more funding to discourage corruption and increase the accessibility levels of the veterans by hiring more healthcare professionals and opening up more off-site clinics to meet their demands.

Communicate for Buy-In

With regards to the VA medical center, the main point at this stage is to gather support from as many stakeholders as possible. The advocacy for change would be built on a marketing basis, where the social platform would be used to address the need for change and its benefits. It would be most appropriate to disclose all the change requirements to the official government agencies and the VA representatives in Washington as well as the Inspector General Office. This can be achieved through frequent meetings, conference calls, and letters as communication channels. Additionally, the agenda would be the advantages of implementing the medical changes in the healthcare centers as a whole within the community.

Empower Action

The VA medical center should have sufficient amount of staff members and state of the art technological equipment to improve service delivery and the speed at which it is delivered. Additional funding and constant auditing of the veteran medical center also needs to be developed and implemented. This can be achieved through appointing financial experts from other governmental agencies from Washington to help guide them in the right direction. Also, the financial department from this VA needs to be responsible for delegating a commission to audit and oversee all financial matters and provide an accurate report to Washington. Moreover, providing a feedback platform from the patient would also help improve on the intended changes for a better future of the medical center. For example, implementing suggestion boxes and online platforms where feedback can be sourced.

Create Short-Term Wins

A rewarding strategic system is to be implemented for the employee who displays improvements toward the intended objective of the VA medical center, such as incentives and wage increment. For instance, providing inexpensive gifts for the most performing medical staff members in specific departments and also particular commissions for the staffs based on their performance with regards to output. On the other hand, the change would be divided into a module with specific time frames sets to help monitor progress. For example, the number of patients treated in a particular month.

Don’t Let Up

The VA medical center’s change implementation process, are to be made constant or else improve more at the healthcare organization. This is to be achieved through constant training of the staff members, motivating them through rewarding as well as punishing the wrongs done. For example the veteran center every new employee should have an induction of the organization’s goals, values and the culture expected from them. Additionally, the VA medical center they should have the continuous training of being informed and briefed on new technologies and how to use them effectively to improve service delivery.

Make Change Stick

Instituting change is the final step, and it entails formulating strategies laid out on the VA medical center proposals, the factor in the transformation of the organization. For example, the veteran medical center, in general, should develop an organizational culture where new practitioners, administrators among other staff members at the facility are assimilated towards the objectives, morals and ethical practices of the VA Medical Center.

The corporate culture at the medical center should encompass all the highlighted recommendation towards improving the service delivery of the facility to its veterans. The proposed include auditing and improved funding, training of employees, suggestion platforms for the patients as well as an overall agency (such as the Inspector General and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs) to oversee operations of the medical facility in general.


In conclusion, the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (2017) explains that, like other standard healthcare services, the Medical Benefits Package underscores preventive and essential care, offering a full scope of outpatient and inpatient administrations. Despite the fact that some VA medical centers are incredible on providing quality healthcare, others scarcely meet least quality principles, making an uneven balance of quality care over veterans living all over the nation. Some VA organizations have long held up records while others are staff heavy and discharge. A moment the favorable position of opening up more outpatient specialty clinics, hiring more staff to meet the demand, involve more employee training, and adding more funding, embraces the access of measuring general viability. Right now, the VA is not required to discharge information on quality, well-being, patients’ involvement, taken a toll viability, or timeliness. The absence of straightforwardness is a factor in how awkwardness including abuse of open assets can happen without much notice.

Since the exposure to this epidemic, the VA medical center recently launched a new website with the quality tool and access with the aim of helping veterans to make informed decisions. According to U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs (2017), the new tool makes it possible for the caregivers, veterans and the general public to easily have access a transparent and understandable appointment waiting time and quality care in the healthcare industry. This means that all veterans will be in a position to compare easily and quickly the access to quality healthcare from the VA facility to the others, therefore, making conclusive decisions on where, how and when to receive their medical care. With the addition of the Obamacare, veterans at some of VA’s have the ability make a comparison between the VA medical quality and the private sector healthcare facilities and have the option to use those private-sectors. Therefore, by making the VA medical center work by expanding its programs, tools, and services, it should give measurements that shows its quality by ordinarily acknowledging its benchmarks. As a result, the veteran healthcare and overall well-being crises can be eliminated to a minimum if not at all. This likewise implies restorative records will never again be faxed or hand conveyed as these records will as of now be put away in a shareable database. This will help numerous Veterans who see human services suppliers crosswise over state lines


Black, N., Bronstein, S., & Griffin, D. (2014). VA Deaths Covered up to Make Statistics Look Better, Whistle-Blower Says. Retrieved from -via-deaths-new-allegations/index.html

Bronstein, S., & Griffin, D. (2016). A Fatal Wait: Veterans Languish and Die on a VA Hospital’s Secret List. Retrieved from

Cohen, D. S., & Kotter, J. P. (2012). The heart of change: real-life stories of how people change their organizations. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2015). About VA: Mission, Vision, Core Values & Goals. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2017). Health Benefits. Retrieved from

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2017). VA’s New Online Tool Helps Veterans Make Informed Health Care Decisions. Retrieved from 37002/vas-new-online-tool-helps-veterans-make-informed-health-care-decisions/

Wagner, D. (2014). VA employee” I Kept a Secret Phoenix VA List. Retrieved from




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Vegetarianism versus eating meat

Vegetarianism versus eating meat

There are various eating lifestyles around the globe and eating healthier has come to dominate the minds of most people. This has been so because there is a direct relationship between our health and the food we consume. Vegetarianism has become almost a cultural norm in all over the world with people embracing it as a much healthier lifestyle. This worldwide adoption can be attributed to the influence impacted by celebrities, influential individuals and the health trends. Others tend to adopt a vegan diet due to animal welfare issues. But basically from numerous studies, it is evident that vegans have much healthier lifestyles than non-vegetarians. From my perspective being a vegan is advantageous since most nutrients to achieve a healthy diet are present and available, but everything has its pros and cons and however few they may be they have to be taken into consideration before undertaking the whole vegan experience. This paper will cover claims and counterclaims on whether a vegan diet is richer in nutrients, whether it helps one lose excess weight, its protection against certain cancers and whether or not it is linked to lower risk of heart disease.

Many people have been going vegan nowadays are growing tremendously. They also have groups such as the Lacto-Ovo vegetarian who consumes milk and eggs only and not the other animal products whereas there is the vegan who does not consume any animal product (White & Frank, 2014). Claims that ‘greens’ are very healthy and as the primary energy source in the food chain compared to meat which contains saturated fat which is usually bad for one’s health. Vegetarian diets are richer in nutritional fiber, are also richer in elements such as potassium, folic acid and magnesium which are important in most physiological functions in the body (Clarys et al., 2014).

These diets have antioxidants; vitamin E and C which provide protective characteristics and cannot be found in meats (Clarys et al., 2014). They also act as a reliable source of calcium which can be gotten from dark leafy vegetables. They are also rich in vitamins such as vitamin K and essential amino acids. Vegan diets naturally have a low-calorific value and contain a much higher concentration of minerals, vitamins and micronutrients than animal based foods. The fiber in the plant foods slows down digestion making one feel full and goes for a long time without feeling hungry helping one control their food intake hence reducing weight (Glick-Bauer & Yeh, 2014). Vegan diets especially fruits contribute to keeping one’s blood-sugar stable reducing cravings which lead to junk food consumption and weight gain (Gerasimova & Kazantseva, 2015).

Cancer is mostly associated with the eating lifestyle that one adopts from inception. It is believed that most animal products are usually injected with hormones, steroids and other drugs which lead to the development of cancer to the consumers (Huang et al., 2012). The vegetarian diet help alleviates these problems since they contain fewer chemicals which contribute to cancer. Also, the absence of saturated fats from plant-based foods is free of preservatives since most are on a farm to fork basis while fresh. Consumption of plant-based foods there is the reduced risk of obesity and heart diseases which are usually related to high cholesterol levels which are absent in vegan diets (Gerasimova & Kazantseva, 2015). Most medical professionals and researchers argue that high levels of fat especially saturated fat are one of the main reasons for heart diseases (Huang et al., 2012). For this reason, vegan diets have lower fat levels which are usually unsaturated fat as present in the avocado.

Beginners on a vegan diet might not be aware that the diet can predispose them to certain health risks. They may be drawn to consuming more carbs and starch-rich vegetables to feel full; this can be due to if their diet does not have adequate good sources of proteins. This will lead to cholesterol build-up and weight gain and if continued for long can lead to heart diseases exposure. Excessive intake of carbs and starch will result in problems in the blood sugar level which eventually triggers cravings for junk food. Vegan diets are also termed as disadvantageous since they tend to lack some essential nutrients necessary to make a balanced diet. Some of the nutrients can only be found in meat or obtained from animal proteins, and there is the risk of being malnourished. Some meat supplements can lead to bloat or have lower nutritive content than meat.

This is evidence of a vegan diet can pose health risks is backed up by scientific facts in that there are health differences in consumption of plant-based foods (White & Frank, 2014). Consumers of foods high in fruit, whole grains, vegetables and healthy (unsaturated) fats are less likely to acquire heart-related diseases and cancer whereas diets including foods such as potatoes, refined grains and cereals do pose a health risk similar to that posed by consumption of animal protein based diets (Orlich et al., 2015). But vegan diets are also affected by external factors in predisposing one to health risks such as stress which can accelerate the risks.

Vegetarians should be advised on a proper diet regime which should be balanced especially for the beginners. Appropriate food selection is also important to avoid deficiencies which may lead to adverse health problems, but in conclusion, a vegan diet can help to protect an individual’s health by losing extra weight and also by lowering risk of diseases such as cancer and heart attacks which are often associated with intake of meat. But basically, vegans have a much healthier lifestyle compared to their non-vegetarian counterparts.


Clarys, P., Deliens, T., Huybrechts, I., Deriemaeker, P., Vanaelst, B., De Keyzer, W., … Mullie, P. (2014). Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet. Nutrients, 6(3), 1318-1332. doi:10.3390/nu6031318

Gerasimova, E. L., & Kazantseva, K. A. (2015). THE BENEFITS OF VEGETARIANISM. (pp. 5-6).

Glick-Bauer, M., & Yeh, M. (2014). The Health Advantage of a Vegan Diet: Exploring the Gut Microbiota Connection. Nutrients, 6(11), 4822-4838. doi:10.3390/nu6114822

Huang, T., Yang, B., Zheng, J., Li, G., Wahlqvist, M. L., & Li, D. (2012). Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 60(4), 233-240. doi:10.1159/000337301

Orlich, M. J., Singh, P. N., Sabaté, J., Fan, J., Sveen, L., Bennett, H., … Fraser, G. E. (2015). Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers. JAMA Internal Medicine, 175(5), 767. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2015.59

White, R., & Frank, E. (2014). Health effects and prevalence of vegetarianism. Western Journal of Medicine, 160(5), 465.





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Violation of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act confidentiality

Violation of HIPAA confidentiality

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 was the enactment that provides information protection as well as the security arrangements for safeguarding the therapeutic data. A patient has the benefit to change their prosperity record or demand modifications when they feel there is a misrepresentation. A patient can introduce a made Record out of Disagreement which will stay in the archive. Diverse rights fuse the benefit to know who your restorative information has been conferred to. According to McKnight and Franko (2016), the secured substance must keep a log of this report. Patients cannot have their data denied to them in case they cannot pay their specialist’s visit cost. They may be blamed for a charge for copies or mailing of the data, yet they cannot be charged for a chase of records.

HIPAA, is also referred to as Public Law 104-191, the basic agenda of the enactment and implementation of the act was: firs is to provide constant medical coverage scope to specialists who lose or change their activity, on the other hand to reduce the managerial cost of therapeutic services by introducing the electronic transmission of authoritative and money related exchanges as well as reduce the cost of operation.

Health Care Organization’s Obligations to meet Patients’ Legal Rights

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, the primary objective was to provide protection and promote confidentiality in the medical records of patients in the United States. Thus, secured elements administered by HIPAA have been looked with a blast of new necessities for taking care of patient data. Those prerequisites have been explained, and authorization authorities have underlined the presence of common money-related punishments for wrongful exposures made purposely or for vindictive or financially profitable reasons. Less consideration has been focused on the activities that secured substances should take upon their acknowledgment that ensured wellbeing data (PHI) had been impermissibly unveiled, albeit such exposures are substantially more prone to happen and furthermore constitute an infringement of HIPAA.

Obligations after Impermissible Disclosures

Raines (2015), explains that, administrative necessities for actualizing HIPAA’s security and protection models clarify that secured elements have an affirmative responsibility to recognize and react to any security episode including an impermissible exposure that is known or suspected. The recognizable proof necessity incorporates a requirement to record the points of interest of the occurrence and to hold that documentation for a long time. The reaction prerequisite commands the utilization of assets against any representatives or different individuals from the secured substance’s workforce who abuse the association’s interior arrangements and techniques with respect to exposures. The same administrative provisions determine that secured elements likewise have a relief commitment upon the ill-advised revelation of PHI. That is, to the degree functional, they should do what they can to diminish the unsafe impacts of any security episode that is known to them, and that is infringing upon either their approaches or methodology or the administrative prerequisites of HIPAA all the more for the most part. Note that this commitment incorporates wrongful exposures by both secured substances and their business partners. People have a privilege to adequate notice in regards to the utilization and vulnerabilities of their PHI under HIPAA’s security principles. This notice is given as a composed bookkeeping, which might be asked for by any person. Most revelations made in the conventional course of a secure element’s business are excluded from the bookkeeping prerequisite. However, impermissible exposures would need to be incorporated. The bookkeeping must be given within 30 days of the demand unless a composed demand for an expansion is sent to the individual and must portray divulgences and the conditions encompassing them for a long time preceding the demand. All accountings must be archived by the securing element for its own records.

Additional Obligations Relating to Business Associate Disclosures

Secured substances likewise confront commitments as for the impermissible divulgences of their business partners. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), in both the protection controls themselves and in sub administrative direction. Unmistakably expresses that if a secured substance realizes that a business relationship has conferred a real break or infringement of the terms of its assertion by impermissibly uncovering PHI, the secured element must accept sensible strides to solution the rupture or end the violation. In the event that such advances are unsuccessful, the secured item must end its concurrence with the business relate; if the end isn’t achievable, the secured item must advise the secretary of HHS. Inability to do as such is an infringement of HIPAA and may subject the secured aspect to punishments (Moldovan, Aguilar, Simon & Nystrom, 2017).

Secured elements are not required to screen the activities of business partners effectively, nor are they answerable or obligated for the activities of business partners. Secured substance risk is restricted to cases where the secured element is aware of an example of movement or work on constituting a material break or infringement of the commitments of the business related. To guarantee that the secured substance is influenced mindful of impermissible exposures by the industry to describe, the protection rules require business partners to answer to the secured element any dishonorable utilize or divulgence of PHI of which the industry describe ends up plainly mindful. This announcing prerequisite must be expressly contained in the understanding; it is essential to encourage the bookkeeping duties confronting secured elements. The secured substance isn’t required to influence a bookkeeping of absolved uses or purposes by the business to relate, yet any auditing must incorporate impermissible divulgences. This commitment expands just to the extent divulgences by the company associate itself, be that as it may, and not to any ensuing exposures by others accepting data from the industry related.

Consequences for Non-Compliance

Criminal infringement of HIPAA is dealt with by the DOJ. Similarly, as with the HIPAA common punishments, there are distinctive levels of seriousness for criminal violations. The violation punishments are based on different perspectives depending on the intensity of the violation as well as the motive behind the noncompliance issues; the penalties range between $100 to 50000 with effect to every violation committed.  The violations are majorly divided into two sections that are the civil and the criminal offense or punishment depending on the context. Additionally, the non-compliance consequences depend on the number of patients affected. Before the sentence is imposed the violation is grouped depending on the following, Unknowing violation, done for reasonable Cause, Determined neglect but the violation is corrected within the required time period as well as wilful neglect which is not corrected within required time period.  The following are the key illustrations of the HIPAA’s punishments

Civil financial punishments

The HHS may impose common monetary sanctions on a secure component of $100 per inability to consent to a Privacy Rule prerequisite not to surpass $25,000 per timetable year for different infringement of a similar Privacy Rule necessity. By and large, HHS may not force common financial punishments when an infringement is because of sensible reason, there was no persistent disregard and the secured substance rectified the defilement in between the 30 days of when one ought to have known about the breach.

Criminal Penalties

An individual who purposely acquires or unveils separately recognisable health data disregarding the stipulated act could attract a fine below $50,000 and detainment for approximately twelve months. According to Cannon, and Caldwell (2016), on the off chance that the wrongful direct includes “misrepresentations” the imposed punishments could increment up to five years detainment or else a fine of $100,000 or below. Consequently A  $250,000  or  approximately 10 years detainment to could be forced if the illegal practice  was motivated by, the aim to offer, exchange, or utilize separately identifiable health information for business advantage, individual pick up, or noxious damage.


Cannon, A. A., & Caldwell, H. (2016). HIPAA violations among nursing students: Teachable moment or terminal mistake-A case study. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 6(12), 41.

McKnight, R., & Franko, O. (2016). HIPAA compliance with mobile devices among ACGME programs. Journal of medical systems, 40(5), 129.

Moldovan, M., Aguilar, C., Simon, J. A., & Nystrom, J. L. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 20,170,300,644. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Raines, R. T. (2015). Evaluating the Inebriated: An Analysis of the HIPAA Privacy Rule and Its Implications for Intoxicated Patients in Hospital Emergency Departments. U. Dayton L. Rev., 40, 479.


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Virtual Organizations

Virtual Organizations

A virtual organization is a geometrically distributed organization whose members have a common long-term interest bond and whose communication and coordination of their work is done technologically (Baack, 2017). Virtual organizations are designed to work through organizational boundaries and across space and have links that are strengthened by webs of communication (Baack, 2017).

Virtual organizations evolution can be attributed to the internet and the increased dependence of businesses on it. This is driven by the need for customer satisfaction globally as well as the application of global talents with the aim of maintaining a competitive advantage. The combinations of these factors led to the development of virtual organizations, and this lead to employees focusing on the global talent and therefore effectively making the process adaptable at the lowest cost possible.

The virtual organizations have pros and cons, some of the disadvantages are that the organizations have effective utilization of resources and therefore making them more favorable (Baack, 2017). Virtual organizations also have low levels of bureaucracy. They have adaptable, responsive and flexible when it comes to adapting to changes in the external environment. Some of the disadvantages, on the other hand, are that they cannot work with a group in one common space (Baack, 2017). Another disadvantage is that the initial establishment of such organizations is capital intensive and therefore making it hard for small organizations to join and operate effectively.

Some of the technological devices that have the greatest impact on virtual organizations are things like computers, internet connectivity, the web platforms as well as the large data bank contained in the Google platforms which have enabled acquiring and sharing of information effective. This has greatly reduced the cost of upgrading or improving the performance of businesses and therefore encouraging a positive growth.


Baack, D. (2017). Organizational behavior (2nd ed.). [Electronic version]. Retrieved from


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Website Tools to customer interface

WebsiteTools to customer interface

Tools to customer interface

The customer interface can be defined as a simulated reality substitute of an organization proposed terms. It is designed using characteristics of customer interconnection which are; context, content, community, customization, communication, connection and commerce (Kang, 2015).


Depicts the company’s ease of accessing data and has aesthetics which can be defined as the color compositions and the graphic theme. Prioritize on presentation and appearance of the website. The image below represents an aesthetic representation.


Contents can be classified into either product oriented denoting prioritization on transacting with physical commodities, information-oriented denoting those firms focused majorly on information and service oriented denoting firm prioritizing on service delivery (Kang, 2015).


Encompasses intuitive membership of a set where individuals have similar opinions. In the non -existent ones, members have no mode of communicating or interacting with each other. In the limited community, websites only present informative postings and personal beliefs. The strong community gives way to responsive community platforms, for instance, chat rooms (Kang, 2015).


Customization can be defined as the capability of a website to alter itself or be altered by the individual using it (Kang, 2015).  Customization is usually carried out on the following basis;

Personalization: Initiation and management of the website customization are carried out by the individual user.

Tailoring: The software system presents distinct forms of the website to attract the user. The user can, therefore, choose the version that best suits his interests.

The image of personalized website


Communication refers to the process of passing information from one user to the other. The communication models used are;

One-to-many: Here, the users do not offer any response to the websites messages and presentations.

One-to-many: Here, the users can respond through comments to the announcements and messages on the website.

One-to-one: The user can receive personal messages and announcements but cannot offer any response.

One-to-one: The user can respond to the personalized messages and announcements remitted on the website.


Connection can be defined as the level of capability of a website joining other websites. Connections can be classified in accordance with

Site destination: Produces website initiated information together with other minute website links.

Hub website: Produces website initiated data with other website links with information relating to that particular information.

Portal website: Majorly contains other links to majority websites.


Commerce refers to website transaction on goods and services (Kang, 2015). Commerce sites can be classified as low, medium and high.

Developing a website

Gathering information

One requires a better understanding of the nature of the company for whom the website is being developed based on purpose, objectives, site content and targeted population (Alkhalifah, 2017).

System planning

It’s initiated using the information gathered in the first step. This is map development stage where major decisions are made on the software and hardware to be used in implementing the site.

System design

The site designer creates a website prototype which is a mere creation of the final website. Clear communication needs to be emphasized to ensure that the requirements of the organization are adequately met before the final site is created (Alkhalifah, 2017).

System development

The designer uses all the elements and features of the prototype and incorporates them to makes the final product. The designer on time to time avails information to the organization to enable corrective actions and improvements. It begins with home page development, shell creation and content site distribution (Alkhalifah, 2017).

System testing and uploading

The web designer carries out comprehensive testing on-site functions, and compatibility. Once the organization or client is content, the site is uploaded to the system servers.

System maintenance

Changes and improvements can be initiated on the system after design. For instance, a content management system can be initiated to enable utilization of online software for website development (Alkhalifah, 2017).


Alkhalifah, A. (2017). Developing Mobile Commerce Website Design to Enhance Users Experience. IJCSNS, 17(9), 65.

Kang, J. Y. M. (2015). Customer Interface Design for Co-Creation in the Social Era.



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