Describe James David Barber’s typology of presidential character, focusing on the variables of activity level and affect, and the four types that combinations of them generate. Give at least one example of presidents who fit each type

Throughout, be sure to answer the questions thoroughly, but only the questions. Each answer should be 1-1/2 to 2 pages, typed and double spaced, using 12-point font size. NO EXTRA WIDE SPACING between paragraphs! Write only in complete sentences, and use formal English throughout. The quality of your spelling, grammar and English usage is an indicator of the time and effort that you have put into this assignment, and will be reflected in your grade.

Due: Wed. October 14 by 4 PM; e-mail me your papers.

Answer five out of the following six questions in paragraph form, in 1-1/2 to 2 pages each.

1. Define and describe the psychoanalytic, trait-based and motive-based approaches to the study of personality. Comment on (1) narcissistic personality disorder, and (2) any three of the other personality disorders discussed in class, indicating for each their likely influences on one’s ability to enter political leadership positions, and how one might behave while exercising political leadership (in both cases, with that disorder).

2. Describe James David Barber’s typology of presidential character, focusing on the variables of activity level and affect, and the four types that combinations of them generate. Give at least one example of presidents who fit each type.

3. Social scientists studying cognition generally have emphasized the limits of human information gathering and processing. Define and describe “heuristics” and comment on any two of these heuristics discussed in class: the availability, representativeness and affect heuristics. Define “attributions” and comment on any two of these three dimensions of attributions: stable vs. unstable, dispositional v. situation, and controllable v. uncontrollable. Finally, define and describe one of these two theories of cognitive consistency: Fritz Heider’s balance theory, or Leon Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory.

4. Define and describe “image theory” in international relations. Describe the “diabolical enemy” image, either the “colonial” or “imperialist” image, the “rogue” image and one of these three images: barbarian, degenerate, or ally. Describe likely behaviors toward a country perceived with the images you write on, and offer real-life historical examples of each.

5. Define and describe the “Michigan model” of American voting behavior. Comment on the variables that influence party identification, including demographic and group affiliations. Describe the concept of “issue constraint’ and define a constrained belief system. Why were the 1960s (1964 and 1968 elections) a period of heightened issue constraint in American politics?

6. Racial stereotypes have manifested in American politics to considerable effect. Define and describe any three of these stereotypes: the black bogeyman, welfare queen, Muslim/Arab as terrorist, and stereotypes about Asian Americans. Define symbolic racism theory in American politics, and compare and contrast it to either principled opposition theory or realistic group conflict theory. Discuss throughout.

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