Describe the role of the sodium-potassium pump on the propagation of an action potential. Describe the pathophysiologic impact of hyperkalemia on the action potential and the resulting clinical manifestations.
Discuss the functions of calcium and magnesium. Explain the pathologic implications and clinical manifestations when calcium is too low (hypocalcemia), calcium is too high (hypercalcemia), magnesium is too low (hypomagnesemia), and magnesium is too high (hypermagnesemia).
Compare the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and compensatory mechanisms of metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. In addition, include a discussion of the anion gap (normal and high) as it relates to metabolic acidosis.