Introduction (1 Paragraph)
The changing aspects of healthcare operations force healthcare administrators to oversee numerous projects. Healthcare facilities in recent years have undergone structural changes and faced unique financial constraints as they seek to balance the funding pressure and the need to sustain (Lafond, Charlesworth & Roberts, 2015). The changes require implementation of projects such as logistical projects, technology-related projects, or process-related projects. The complexities of these projects require healthcare managers and administrators to understand project management plans to guide the process and execution of projects. This study involves the development of a Computerized Order Entry Plan for Valley Hospital, as a focus of a project I will be doing in future.
Part 1: Service Level Agreement (4 pages)
The healthcare systems make serious and widespread efforts to ensure the improvement of their practice and facilities although many patients still suffer preventable harm daily (Chassin & Loeb, 2013). The project management plan provides documentation of information regarding implementation of Computerized Order Entry for Valley Hospital to manage the project from the beginning through implementation effectively. The Computerized Order Entry system is an essential tool for physicians to enter medical orders and other instructions electronically instead of using paper charts.
The document has been reviewed and approved to ensure agreement and understanding with the project approach and scope by the key stakeholders.
Goals and Objectives of the Project
The project’s goal is to enable application of Computerized Order Entry in Valley Hospital by implementing the Emergency Care and Computerized Physician Order Entry. Implementing Computerized Order Entry will make Valley Hospital realize benefits in clinical workflow processes and improved clinical diagnostics. Implementing the system will be in accordance with the country’s Recovery and Reinvestment Act that addresses a variety of requirements to achieve efficient use of Electronic Health Records. Implementation of the project will improve clinical decision making, reduce errors, reduce patients’ length of stay, reduce manual efforts and costs in the ordering process, and improve workflow processes for transmitting and ordering tests.
The objectives of the project will include developing clinical order sets, developing clinical alerts, and implement full orders for every inpatient listed in ancillary services. The project will also duplicate checking parameters to minimize duplication errors, develop order transmission via printed forms, system configuration, and alerts, and interface, and also implement improvement of workflow processes to improve Computerized Order Entry. The project will also identify resources necessary to expand and sustain the use of Computerized Order Entry at Valley Hospital.
Requirements for the Project
The project will be required to improve workflow processes involved in transiting and ordering tests. Other requirements would be to improve clinical decision making by providing patient’s information on time, reduce patients’ length of stay in the hospital, and reduce the number of adverse effects resulting from clinical errors. Implementation of the project will be expected to reduce manual efforts and costs associated with manual ordering.
Tangible Measures to achieve Project Success
The project’s success factors will include participation and support of stakeholders. The steering committee’s timely decisions will indicate the project’s success. Other success indicators will include timing of vendor and software available as well as the implementation of all components and prerequisite modules on time.
The scope of the project will include all components and activities that are essential in the implementation of the Computerized Order Entry Vendor Computerized Order system for emergency and inpatient department orders at Valley hospital. The components and activities will include Computerized Order Entry components such as Horizon Emergency Care, Horizon Expert Orders as well as other prerequisite components.
The Expected Deliverables for the Project
The project’s initiation deliverables will include a statement of work or contact, project management plan, scope change decisions, communication plan, detailed project schedule, and resource assignment metrics. The deliverables for managing the project will include status reports, cost management, meeting agendas and minutes, risk worksheet and management, and issues log and management. The system design and requirement deliverables will include interface requirements, systems design, and review workflow policies and processes. The planning deliverables will include marketing plan, benchmark plan, and system testing plan.
Acceptance Criteria for the Project
All the activities and deliverables will have to be primarily prepared, approved, supported, reviewed, and input provided. The project will be accepted after resource assignment by client sponsor, and client information technology director Valley Hospital. The other team will include training or user support, physician consultant, and process mapping analyst among others.
The project will assume that the main implementation team will work together and coordinate the project’s activities between key resources from Care-tech solutions, Valley Hospital, and Computer Physician Order Entry Vendor. The client will readily have the essential resources such pharmacy lead, physician champion, client project manager, clinical expert super users, and physician representatives among others to implement the system. The team to implement the project will have access to regions within the facility where they need to work and will work together with Valley Hospital personnel as necessary but keep disruptions low.
Other assumptions will include clients providing information technology support for Computer Order Entry after project closure, resources and funding to be secured in order to implement interfaces with required systems, as well as securing software and hardware required for system implementation. The clients are also assumed to attend the required training, the recommended committee will be in place, and implementation delays resulting from client’s responsibilities will lead to additional costs for Computer Physician Order Entry Vendor to reschedule and penalties.
The potential risks will include prior failure of Computer Order Entry at competitive Valley Hospital impacting the physician’s willingness to embrace the system. The project will be difficult to implement because of the industry experience requiring significant workflow changes to address cultural issues. The Valley Hospital will have to change from using manual processes and update their access to information technology training and the needed clinical support.
The project will have assessment risks such as the need for communication channel and strategy, unemployed physicians, commitment for upgrading business continuity plan and disaster recovery, and costs of implementation and ongoing support. The assessment of the project will require a lot of time and commitment efforts from stakeholders and the project’s team, and will also require end-user client workstation review.
The constraints of the project include getting contract signatures for engaging Computer Physician Order Entry vendor by June 30th, 2018. There will be constraints in resource availability in vendor, IT and non IT. Other constraints are those of The American Recovery and Reinvestment dates for Medicare payment penalty to achieve meaningful use, and also the preliminary stages’ dates for the continuation of maximum stimulus benefits.
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Roles and Responsibilities Matrix
|Job Title||Role in Project||Responsibilities in Project||Internal/External||Communication Needs|
|James Blunt||Valley Hospital Clinical Coordinator||Client coordinator||Collaborate coordinating the work task for the system’s end users and development team.||Internal||Performing functional system tests and defining system security access needs|
|Janet Lord||Operations manager, Valley Hospital||IT Technical lead||Ensuring all infrastructure components are met to support adaptation, system installation, testing, conversion, production, and processing requirements.||Internal||Providing network access, and identifying review of necessary infrastructure components.|
|Sylvester Brand||Vendor||Computer Physician Order Entry vendor project manager||Planning and coordinating all activities of the Computer Physician Order Entry vendor responsibilities for the project||External||Providing vendor expertise to the project team and coordinating delivery and installation of all project’s hardware and software components|
|Donald Smith||Pharmacist||Client user group||Assisting in workflow design and planning systems related to processes and area requirement||External||Participating in interviews to support system configuration and reviewing deliverables to define processes and requirements.|
|Cynthis Landorf||Trainer||Project training coordinator||Coordinating all aspects of end-user education systems||Internal||Developing training plans and identifying individuals to be trained.|
|Brighton Lawrence||CareTech||Interface developer||Designing, configuring, implementing, and supporting project’s related interfaces||External||Translating valley hospital requirements|
|Mary Norman||Customer service||Client help desk||Understanding concepts of understanding and expediting a quick resolution to problems||Internal|
Part 2: Project Schedule (1 table)
|Task||Activity by Weeks from the start of the project|
|Statement of work|
|Management of Cost|
|Risk worksheet management|
|System design review|
|System testing plan|
|Interface development and testing|
Estimating techniques used to develop the project schedule (2 paragraphs)
The project schedule is estimated using a schedule network analysis. The analysis is created using project management software. The technique prevents all the activities of the project and time it takes to complete them and the sequence of tasks. The results are presented graphically.
The schedule network analysis will be effective because it provides detailed and thoughtful planning with better analysis and logical thinking. The technique identifies critical activities and focuses them on providing greater managerial attention. The plan will be useful in overcoming project delays, help in making decisions, and avoid crashing programs.
Strategies for Maintaining the Project Budget (2 pages)
Budget Success Factors
The principal project success determinant is keeping within the project’s budget (Gładysz, B., Kuchta, Frączkowski & Pawlicki, 2015). The success of a project requires understanding the project’s requirement from the start and focusing on the project planning to provide direction to project managers and the overall team to execute the project accordingly. In order for projects to succeed, they must be delivered on time and managed within the estimated budget. The most important factors for every project to succeed are cost, time, and quality.
Project leadership is a success factor by setting the vision, direction, and key processes concerning the project. Leaders possess special skills and bring them to manage the project increasing its success. The complexity of projects requires project managers to have an understanding of technology, trends and market-related to the project to have proper technological innovations and solutions. The project managers must have skills in planning, scheduling, and budgeting, and encourage greater productivity by exercising effective leadership throughout the project’s phase (Kandelousi, 2011).
The other factor of a successful project has the right people in place. The entire project personnel should be part of the dynamic team. Assigning the right personnel to every aspect of the project ensures cooperation. A collaborative team ensures everybody is informed and involved in achieving a positive outcome (Alias, Zawawi, Yusof & Aris, 2014).
Comprehensive planning is crucial for the success of every project. Involving all the stakeholders in the planning process helps the team meet the deadline and stays organized. Good planning keeps all the stakeholders aware of the project and keeps the project team focused and on track. Quality planning allows reliable and realistic time management and assures quality time for estimating the cost and provides clear documentation of deliverables and milestones making the project effective.
The success of a project also depends on open communication. Open communication ensures working under specific timetable and keeps the team informed. Communication is internally focused within the organization to give access to convenient to improved business processes and policies.
The success of a project also depends on careful risk management. The stakeholders must be informed of the risk log with action plans and resolve emerging issues with the already in place management plan. Central online databases of project information ensure important project’s momentum is safe during the project and allows getting new teams in case of losing key participants.
Strategies for Due Diligence and Maintaining Project Budget
The project must be kept on the budget for implementing effective project cost and ensure changing needs do not drive up the cost. Project managers must have skills in various cost management strategies to deal with the changing initial requirements that underpin a project. The first approach is the reallocation of resources as a method of project cost management. Project managers must ensure considerations on the reallocation of the available resources. The strategy ensures the project stays on budget while addressing possible shortcomings.
The second approach for project cost management is awareness and creativity. The approach focuses on awareness and creativity and requires project managers to closely monitor the project’s cost and evaluate potential adjustments continually to keep the project on budget. Project managers must apply project cost management strategies to deal with the dynamic nature of the projects.
The third approach in the project cost management is training programs. The programs provide project managers with the skills they require to address challenges in budgeting. The training programs allow managers to master cost management strategies and are offered online.
Part 4: Risk Management, Quality Management, and Sustainability (3 pages)
Managing Project’s Risks
The project’s risks are documented, and mitigation measures are developed. The risks are then reviewed in meetings, and the risk status might vary depending on impact and probability. The state of the risk is kept current and reported based on the requirements of the reporting status. All the emerging risks are brought forward and added during meetings
Risk management will be part of the overall project to reap full benefits of the project’s approach. The risks will be identified from the early stages of the project’s life in an open mindset focusing on potential future scenarios. All the risks will be documented and described stating the responsible party and the likely impact as well as mitigation actions to be taken. Communicating risks will require enough information in monitoring, and the clear, up-to-date risk log will be essential in the project’s life. The risks will be prioritized depending on the factors making them more likely to occur and the possible impacts on cost, scope, timescale, and the quality of deliverables. The response on each risk will be planned by deciding on what to be done to reduce chances of occurring, and then taking actions in case the risk occurs. Risks will be mitigated by accepting, avoiding, transferring, and reducing.
The project manager will be responsible for creating the risk register. Risks will be identified by brainstorming the current risks with the project’s team and stakeholders, by going through the potential factors that are essential for completion of the project and asking people whether they are concerned of potential threats. Risks related to requirements, technology, budget, and legislation among others will be identified. Opportunities will be identified after risk identification as well as preparing for unlikely success and determining likelihood and impacts.
Quality Managing Strategies
Organizations face challenges in managing project’s quality creating the need for quality training workshops to become acquainted with the latest strategies. The strategic quality planning process involves collecting and analyzing the required information before beginning the strategic quality planning and following all the steps necessary to develop a strategic quality plan. The research phase of quality management involves reviewing the strategic plan, identifying, and familiarizing will all the identified corporate strategies. The developed quality strategies must align with and support the corporate strategy in place. The organizational quality initiative goals are then identified to discover the abandoned quality initiatives and consider using them again.
The client’s voice is understood in this phase because the consumer and organizational requirements are the factors driving the strategic quality plans. The consumer needs, and the results of consumer satisfaction used to identify threats and opportunities. All the employees are engaged through feedback to provide insight into issues, concerns, challenges, and opportunities. Benchmarking is also conducted to ensure quality planning team with skills and ideas for improving their internal quality structures, processes, and products.
The strategy phase of quality management in projects entails creating the quality vision and developing strategies to achieve quality planning. A quality policy is then developed to clarify the overall goal, mandate, and objectives for quality. The quality policies are identified to show commitment to quality and ensure all the stakeholders and participants are aware of and align with and support the intents of the project with regard to quality management. The effective operational plan is finally developed stating the objectives required to meet each quality strategy.
Part 3: Project Sustainability Strategies (1 Page)
Project sustainability entails developing systematic concepts that relate to the continuity of social, economic, organizational, and environmental and non-environmental aspects of the project. The sustainability of a project relates to project’s management and other entities that require efficient and effective production and delivery of products and services (Silvius & Schipper, 2014).
The first strategy in the development of a Computerized Order Entry Plan for Valley Hospital will be assessing the current hospital’s project sustainability. A sustainability analysis will help the project managers to understand where they currently stand, and find their greatest opportunities for improvement that will help them measure progress as their sustainability initiative takes shape. Considerations of whether sustainability of the project applies to the project will be made, and then the cost and efforts are evaluated to make improvements.
Sustainability strategies will be developed after completion of the assessments, and then strategies defining project’s goals in improving sustainability will be considered as well as what the project hopes to gain in the process. Sustainability standards will be developed to help project managers to determine whether they are meeting goals for sustainability. Sustainability is looked in partners and vendors to reduce organizational environmental footprint and lead to more achievements among a wide range of stakeholders. Communication strategy is crucial to success, and the project teams require to be engaged in the project’s process immediately after defining sustainability strategy.
Project Quality Management Tools and Techniques
The project on the development of a Computerized Order Entry Plan for Valley Hospital will use the control charts. The control charts will be beneficial in measuring results of the project’s process over time and display the results in the form of a graph. The control charts will enable the project manager to determine whether the project is in control or out of control (Jackline, 2014)
The project will also use flowcharts which are logical steps that assess accomplishment of objectives in a logical order. The flowcharts will be beneficial and will help the project manager to understand and incorporate them and deliver a quality project. The flowcharts will help in identifying where quality challenges might occur on the project and how problems happen (Jackline, 2014)
Alias, Z., Zawawi, E. M. A., Yusof, K., & Aris, N. M. (2014). Determining critical success factors of project management practice: A conceptual framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 61-69.
Chassin, M. R., & Loeb, J. M. (2013). High‐reliability health care: getting there from here. The Milbank Quarterly, 91(3), 459-490.
Gładysz, B., Kuchta, D., Frączkowski, K., & Pawlicki, A. (2015). Factors which Influence Keeping within a Project Budget in IT Projects. Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego. Finanse. Rynki finansowe. Ubezpieczenia, (74 T. 1 Rynek kapitałowy, wycena przedsiębiorstw, inwestycje), 511-522.
Jackline. (2014). Quality Management Tools And Techniques – Whizlabs Blog. Retrieved from https://www.whizlabs.com/blog/quality-management-tools-and-techniques/
Kandelousi, N. S. (2011). Key success factors for managing projects. World Academy of Science, Engineering, and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 5(11), 1541-1545.
Lafond, S., Charlesworth, A., & Roberts, A. (2015). Hospital finances and productivity: in a critical condition?. London: Health Foundation.
Silvius, A. J., & Schipper, R. P. (2014). Sustainability in project management: A literature review and impact analysis. Social Business, 4(1), 63-96.