Macroeconomics Goals

Macroeconomics Goals

Macroeconomics considers the large scale and this is the general economic factors which affect or can cause a shift in the whole nation’s economic position and they include interest rates and the overall national productivity. Macroeconomics has three major policy goals that it applies as it tries to stabilize the national economic position and they are;

  1. Economic growth: Economic growth focuses on increased standards of living in the whole country.
  2. Low unemployment: Unemployment is the condition of waiting and not having a paid job which basically is one of the economic challenges in most of the nations.
  3. Low inflation: Inflation is the general increase in the price levels and this generally considers the price of goods and several services in the economy and therefore.

The three goals of macroeconomics can be assesses in the article;

Economic Forecast for the World’s leading Economists

There is increased shortage of skilled labor in the economy although this has been due to the disappointing increased wage bill for the already present labor in the United States economy. The Unites states economy however still remains the largest and the most important economy in the world as it has a 20% representation of the total output globally. United States developments and technological advancements accounts for 80% of the total output. The level of unemployment in the United States stands at 4.3% falling short of 4.7% registered in the year 2016 (United States Economy – GDP, Inflation, CPI and Interest Rate, 2017). This has therefore expressed trends in the economy and therefore improving the standards of living in the economy. The united states GDP has grown with 2.6% by the July of 2017 and this followed a downward revised 1.2% expansion in the year 2016 (United States Economy – GDP, Inflation, CPI and Interest Rate, 2017). This has contributed to increased customer expenditure and increased investments in the export industry and therefore generating more revenue for the country hence boosting the economy (United States Economy – GDP, Inflation, CPI and Interest Rate, 2017). The current inflation rate by June 2017 in United States was 1.63% a decrease from 1.87% registered in May 2017 (United States Economy – GDP, Inflation, CPI and Interest Rate, 2017). This could be attributed to the boost of the economy initiated by the increased export and import industry and therefore lowering the prices of the commodities since the business men have been favored by the foreign exchange rate and therefore sourcing for goods at lower prices outside the country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

United States Economy – GDP, Inflation, CPI and Interest Rate. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.focus-economics.com/countries/united-states

 

 

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Argument

Argument

An argument is a reason or sets of reasons aimed to persuade other parties that an idea or action is right or wrong (In Brzozowska & In Chłopicki, 2015). Arguments are meant to change the stand of the second party in regards to an idea or an issue.

My personal communication style is assertive communication and I state my feelings and opinion in a conversation and advocate or push towards its recognition and being addresses without stepping on other peoples toes. I feel that time is of essence and therefore it effectively take my time in developing my argument and therefore coming out clearly. I value other people opinion and therefore during a discussion I allow people to raise their opinion and if the opinion does not truly concern with what I feel I disagree and if the opinion is in line with my argument I also complement the person I engage with. I also like clarifying on points that are not clear in conversations and discussions and therefore leaving every question settled.

I have learned that an academic argument is an evidence based defense of a non-verbal position of a certain issue. A research paper must have evidence extracted from quotations or statistics from peer reviewed article journals. The four basic elements of an argument are claims, evidence, counterargument, and rebuttal (De Vries, 2015). A claim is a way of starting a conversation e.g. “Professor, I would like to have a session with you after class.” Evidence on the other hand is giving a reason in the e.g. in the case above the professor would ask why and the then you would give a reason. Counterargument is the discussion that occurs between two parties as that try to convince one another of an issue. In the case above the student would converse with the professor and justify the need for the session. In the conversation the student gives the reason to justify their conversation which is meant to convince the professor. E.g. the student can say that they have not understood a concept taught in class.  

A recent argument that I experienced was with my employer seeking permission to represent my mother in a legal proceeding. I had to fully convince the employer that my presence in the preceding was critical as the family lawyer had instructed me to stand on my mother’s behalf due to her illness. The reason was convincing and the counterargument drove the claim and made him become convinced.

After reading the course materials, I have questions about the how to harmonize or link the different styles of communicating that is passive communication, aggressive communication , passive-aggressive communication and  assertive communication as this is a challenge in group discussions and other class discussions. Most of the time people raise their voices and the discussion goes out of control in class discussions.

References

De Vries, R. E. (2015). Communication Styles. The International Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Communication, 1-5. doi:10.1002/9781118540190.wbeic033

In Brzozowska, D., & In Chłopicki, W. (2015). Cultural diversification issues: Communication styles.

 

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Sampling theory

Sampling theory

Sampling theory is a statistics field dealing with data collection, analysis and interpretation from samples collected randomly in a population. In a research the target population is large and it is expensive conducting such a study while considering all the individuals. To reduce the cost the researchers come up with a smaller sample that is representative or is a true reflection of the entire target population and uses it to conduct the study. This ensures that the results obtained from the study is representative and can be used to generalize or draw conclusion about the entire population. The selection of the sample should be done properly to ensure that all the target groups attributes or characteristics under study are well represented and that the sample selected is spread throughout the entire population.

An example of sample in a research can well be demonstrated in a health based research involving a community of 245,000 people. The research could be about the mortality rate of a certain disease like HIV/ Aids and this can bet be done by sampling some of the households in the community. One can have a sample of 245 households and use them in the study such that one household will be representing one thousand households. In this study the samples should be selected randomly from the entire community and should not originate from one locality to ensure there is no biasness and that the sample selected is representative.

In nursing some of the campaigns or research programs conducted can be effected and made successful by making sure that the target population gives the best sample that can aid in the research process. If the sample is not carefully selected the data obtained might be biased and hence not representative. This therefore means that the results cannot be used to generalize the population characteristics in relation to what is being studied.

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impact to the nursing profession and to the public related to the projected nursing shortage

What is the impact to the nursing profession and to the public related to the projected nursing shortage? Discuss at least one way that the nursing profession is working toward a resolution of this problem.

 

The nurses scope in terms of the patients they handle has continued expanding and therefore straining them and affecting their effectiveness as well as the general productivity. The registered nurses in the United States are the single largest group in the United States as compared to other healthcare professionals. The vacancies or rather the gap for the RNs has continued to register a positive increase standing at 7.7% according to NSI Nursing Solutions report. The need for the nurses is being increase by various facts one of them being that the current population has more medical complications as compared to earlier generations.  Various chronic conditions like dementia, arthritis, cancer, obesity and diabetes have also called for the need for extra professional nurses as to help in ensuring that the conditions are catered for and that the patients get the necessary care they deserve. The decrease in the number of students and the people interested in the profession has also registered a decrease and therefore affecting the final profession staff that graduate with n nursing courses in the universities.

The projected nursing shortage should trigger some concern to the health department as well as the government and emphasize on the need to train more nurses. This is to reduce the gap between the patients attended by one nurse as well as increasing the professionalism of handling patients by nurses. It is also important to note that some of the nurses already in the field should also have an exposure of further training to ensure that they are equipped with extra skills that can help them stretch their skills and hansle more patients with professionalism required and still be effective in their operations.

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spiritual care

What is your definition of “spiritual care?” How does it differ or accord with the description given in the topic readings?

Spiritual care is the care that recognized and responds to the human spirits needs when they are going through trauma in sadness or i8llness and they can include the needs of clearly having a self-worth meaning, self-expression, faith support through sacrament and prayers or simply sensitively listening to the affected individuals. In Christianity the spiritual care is the care that shows the affiliation between Gods and his people with Jesus Christ as the one uniting them. The reading considers spiritual care as the values, beliefs, practices and relationships that help individuals to shape their lives and make sound decisions. To combine this with health it simply means building and maintaining a relationship between God and his patients through Prayers, bible sessions, fellowshipping and offering extended church linkages for the patients. Church and spiritual attachment is one of the reliever and Christians believe that prayers heals and clenches peoples sins and therefore this is mostly applies to the such people in hospital beds as ways of cleansing them and uniting them to God especially the ones that are terminally ill before they meet their Death.

Some chronic condition can only be managed and the patients in such sitiuations need to be shown love and care and to provide them with spiritual support for their emotional and psychological needs. The nurses are mandated to provide medical needs for the patients but it is also essential that they are given spiritual guidance to cater for their soul and spirit. This goes to the extent of being there for them and encouraging them and their families through giving them hope that they will get through the condition stronger and united. For the healing process to be complete the human body, soul and spirit must be considered. The nurses should ensure that they consider the body treatment through medication and also complement this through offering the spiritual support for the soul and spirit to maintain the healing process of the patients.

Reference

Shelly, J., & Miller, A., (2006) Called to Care a Christian Worldview for Nursing. Retrieved from: https://viewer.gcu.edu/UGPTQ4

 

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Writing process

Writing process

Writing is a process and reconnecting all the steps along the way leads to arriving at high standard paper that expresses the point intended in a clear and precise manner. In the process of writing four distinctive processes are involved and are interlinked and failure to coordinate the steps could lead to not achieving or communicating the intended message. The four steps I apply are prewriting, drafting, revising, and editing (Knorr & Heine, 2014). In the process of revising I keep on revisiting the prewriting stage to help me expounding the ideas and therefore having a script that is highly informative and well detailed.

Prewriting is anything that is done before the actual draft is written (Bailey, 2015). In this step I include thinking, notes taking, consultations, brainstorming, gathering of information, and brainstorming. I gather the information in this stage through interviewing people, library research, and data assessment as this is critical in the draft to be written. This step although is the first step of the writing process I keeps on revisiting it time and again as the process of building content is gradual and therefore to avoid the loop holes I keep on adding the information throughout the other stages.

Drafting on the other hand involves arranging the ideas into sentences and paragraphs to make some meaning to the readers of the draft or rather the targeted audience. In this stage I expound and explain the ideas further such that the information I present is as clear as possible. I try as much as possible to connect and link the ideas with one another such that the draft has a flow and one idea leads to another in a complementing manner. The process of putting the idea changes almost everything regardless of the time I spend in planning and gathering information as here I consider the practical part of it in that the information should be as real as possible before I present it to the audience. The selecting of words determines how the ideas I have gathered are linked and therefore allowing me to carefully select words for better understanding by the audience. At this stage I do not pay attention to issues like spelling as it is about drafting and reconnecting the ideas.

Revising is vital for making any effective document. In this stage I think more deeply about the readers expectations and needs such that I refine the language and makes sure that whatever I present will automatically capture the audience’s attention.  According to Donald (1991), most writers scan through their drafts fast and therefore they end up not being able to capture some of the mistakes done. Here the document I make is readers centered. I concentrate on the effort needed to drive the idea home and knowing the word that defines the readers or rather captures their attention. It also ensures that I note when the reader need to know about something or rather the steps of offloading the ideas to the audience. This is the stage where I refine the purpose such that the sentences are accurate and concise as I make connections between the ideas clearly and explicitly.

Editing is the last stage and here I check for issues such as grammar, mechanics and the spelling errors that might have occurred in the writing process. I try as much as possible not to edit their writing material until I have completed all the other steps to avoid compromising the work as that could lead to missing some points.

In conclusion I have managed to coordinate and apply all the above steps in my writing process and therefore this has made my writing easy and outstanding. Practice and dedication in my writing process has led to increased effectiveness and also increased the quality of my writing and therefore making my work outstanding. It however has not been easy as I have had to learn from the various mistakes, accept them and learn towards eradicating them and therefore streamlining my writing process. According to Donald  (1991) writers have to accept being criticized and this could be one of the points that has built me as I always take feedback be it positive or negative and consider it in future writing and also when revising some of my work.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Bailey, S. (2015). Academic writing for students of business in the university. New York

Donald M. Murray (1991); The Maker’s Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts

Knorr, D., & Heine, C. (2014). Methods in writing process research. Frankfurt am Main: Lang-Ed.

 

 

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High Reliability in Health Care

High Reliability in Health Care  Long-Term Care

These three steps: commitment by leadership, development of a culture of safety, and the use of process improvement tools, are the core recommendations made by Dr. Chassin, the president of The Joint Commission and the president of the Joint Commission Center for Transforming Healthcare. A first step in identifying whether these recommendations are being met is to compare elements of an organization to criteria which have been identified as essential to high-reliability organizations.

To prepare for this Assignment:

Consider the three steps described by Dr. Chassin and the seven major criteria of the Baldridge Performance Excellence Program, and reflect on how these recommendations can apply to health care organizations, specifically to long-term care facilities.

The Assignment:

In this Assignment you will identify major elements of high-reliability organizations providing long-term care. According to the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program (MBNQA), the criteria are as follows:

Leadership
Strategic planning
Customer and market focus
Measurement, analysis, and knowledge management Human resource focus
Process management
Business/organizational performance results

Using the Highly Reliable Organization Matrix located in this week’s Learning Resources ( see attached files), complete the matrix by typing in the elements which meet the criteria in rows and columns. Describe each element briefly, give an example as to how this can be met in a long-term care facility, and explain the expected impact on patient care.

Based on the results of the Highly Reliable Organization Matrix, write APA style, a 2-page executive summary to the board of directors of the long-term care organization, describing elements which meet the criteria from the matrix and how any missing elements of the criteria for excellence can be met.

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software construction and modeling

According to the textbook, there are at least two (2) approaches to the SDLC, two (2) approaches to software construction and modeling, and many techniques and models. The following could be possible reasons for such a diversity of approaches:

  • The field is young.
  • The technology changes quickly.
  • Different organizations have different needs.
  • There are many types of systems.
  • Developers have widely different backgrounds.

Write a two to three (2-3) page paper in which you:

  1. Analyze each reason listed above as a reason for a diversity of approaches to software construction and modeling, and give your opinion on whether or not each reason is valid.
  2. Propose at least one (1) additional reason why you believe such diversity of approaches exists. Provide support for your recommendation.
  3. Use at least three (3) quality resources outside of the suggested resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, your name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze and present methods to initiate, specify, and prioritize information systems projects and determine various aspects of feasibility of these projects.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in systems analysis and design.
  • Write clearly and concisely about advanced systems analysis and design topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions

The above question should be made using the following  Grading Rubric

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills, using the following rubric.

Points: 150 Assignment 4: Diversity of Approaches
Criteria Unacceptable

Below 70% F

Fair

70-79% C

Proficient

80-89% B

Exemplary

90-100% A

1. Analyze each reason listed above as a reason for a diversity of approaches to software construction and modeling, and give your opinion on whether or not each reason is valid.

Weight: 45%

Did not submit or incompletely analyzed each reason listed above as a reason for a diversity of approaches to software construction and modeling; did not submit or incompletely gave your opinion on whether or not each reason is valid. Partially analyzed each reason listed above as a reason for a diversity of approaches to software construction and modeling; partially gave your opinion on whether or not each reason is valid. Satisfactorily analyzed each reason listed above as a reason for a diversity of approaches to software construction and modeling; satisfactorily gave your opinion on whether or not each reason is valid. Thoroughly analyzed each reason listed above as a reason for a diversity of approaches to software construction and modeling; thoroughly gave your opinion on whether or not each reason is valid.
2. Propose at least one (1) additional reason why you believe such diversity of approaches exists. Provide support for your recommendation.

Weight: 40%

Did not submit or incompletely proposed at least one (1) additional reason why you believe such diversity of approaches exists. Did not submit or incompletely provided support for your recommendation. Partially proposed at least one (1) additional reason why you believe such diversity of approaches exists. Partially provided support for your recommendation. Satisfactorily proposed at least one (1) additional reason why you believe such diversity of approaches exists. Satisfactorily provided support for your recommendation. Thoroughly proposed at least one (1) additional reason why you believe such diversity of approaches exists. Thoroughly provided support for your recommendation.
3. 3 references

Weight: 5%

No references provided. Does not meet the required number of references; some or all references poor quality choices. Meets number of required references; all references high quality choices. Exceeds number of required references; all references high quality choices.
4. Clarity, writing mechanics, and formatting requirements

Weight: 10%

More than 6 errors present 5-6 errors present 3-4 errors present 0-2 errors present

 

 

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Wellness, Sustainable Health Care, and Massage

Wellness, Sustainable Health Care, and Massage

Introduction

The concept of wellness and sustainable health care is a broad spectrum that touches all aspect of life. Wellness is defined as the dynamic process that involves a lifetime commitment to cope with challenges that life portrays. It includes the inclusive health of the public (economy, policy, culture) where citizen’s lives.  Sustainable health care, on the other hand, refers to a maintainable healthy nation whose individuals reveal overall wellness. Prevention of ill-health is not only economically beneficial but also principally, socially and morally looked-for in improving the health and well-being of individuals. In most health care profession within nations, massage therapy is proving essential because of its wide health related issues it can serve.  This technique, as opposed to others, has myriad advantages to health care facilities because of the wide spectrum of long lasting solutions ranging from increasing circulation to activation of immune system. It also has some shortcomings.

Overall Wellness and Other Interrelated Aspects

According to New Brunswick (2008), wellness is a continuing course to develop, intellectual, bodily, emotional, spiritual, and social well-being that enables individuals to grasp and sustain latent contribution to their society. Ideal health improves the life quality, and well-being is all about life worth. Wellness which entails disease prevention and health promotion has proven to be broader than good health. Numerous public policy areas require wellness intervention to yield positive results. Irresponsible lifestyle choices such unhealthy eating, misuse of nicotine products, alcohol, and drug abuse have seemed disastrous in achieving societal wellness. Retirement is a major point of shift at which changes in healthy lifestyle may take place hence the elderly are advised to avoid ill-health behaviors. Routines such jogging, cycling, dancing, and swimming can help uphold individual wellness by improving blood circulation and breaking down fatty acids in the body.

Community roles in ensuring wellness include creating corporeal and communal environs that are conducive for persons to carry out improved choices such as nutritious-low-fat diet and stress reduction and this offer them prospects and gears to undertake charge for their well-being. Food security is a major factor affecting the wellness because communities members always struggle to meet their nutritional needs.

Massage Therapy

Expert mandate of therapeutic massage in urban hospitals’ patient terminal (Canada) – a diverse approach analyze ( 2015), broadly defined message therapy (MT) as the valuation of flabby muscles and body intersections and the avoidance and handling of  pain of lax tissues by manipulation to maintain, rehabilitate, and develop  physical function or to ease pain. In settings like private health centers and sanatoriums, Massage Therapy has proved fundamentally unified as a vital package. For example in Canada, MT has been used by patients and other health services consumers to address broad coverage of health-related issues such as cerebral palsy.  It has proven to be advantageous because it helps patients from being over-dependence in drug prescription. There is significant scientific evidence that massage therapy is prized in treating patients in recovery from alcohol addiction or eating disorders, and from physical, emotional or sexual abuse (Beck & Chauvin, 2017). Nevertheless, MT does have shortcomings such as time commitment (an average therapeutic massage can take 60 minutes), expensive nature of treatment as well unintentional aftereffects, for example, feeling middlingly greasy and aromatic oils smell after therapy sessions. Many people also have trouble being in a state of semi-nudity in front of doctors. The common massage therapy techniques that have proven beneficial to the young, elderly, seriously ill and the dying include;

  1. Longitudinal gliding: This is administered in the direction of blood flow to hold in fluid dispersion in injury location. It helps reduce swelling, inflammation and to relax tight muscles
  2. Kneading: This massage is performed in different ways that are either by thumb or palm. The rhythmical pressure offered at the different rate depending on the massage essence and the majority of tissues under handling.
  3. Myofascial release: It involves stretching the fascia (seamless web of connective tissue that covers skeletal edifice, organs, and muscles) with the intention to body balance as well as restore these tissues
  4. Trigger point therapy: This encompasses rubbing the pressure to soft muscle tissue- active centers of muscular hyperactivity – to relieve pain in other body parts.
  5. Deep traverse frictions: This uses fluctuating pressure smeared across the course of the tissue fiber to help halt coagulated pain-producing scar tissue to avoid further irritation of lesions.
  6. Cross-fibre massage: this involves producing an extending and widening effect in big muscle groups and conjunctive tissues to reduce bonds and help produce firm and flexible fix during the healing operation.

From the above discussion, as a massage therapist, I would create an ideal therapeutic relationship that ensures the entire activities guarantees client’s mental, emotional and physical well-being and maintains individual welfare. Creating a safe environment where the client can relax, open, release, change, and heal as well upholding confidentiality of client’s details to help influence their awareness of personal health. I would also embark in-depth campaign on healthy lifestyles that would help my client on disease prevention and health promotion.

References

Beck, M., & Chauvin, Y. (2017). Theory & practice of therapeutic massage.

New Brunswick. (2008). Wellness … We Each Have a Role to Play: Individuals, Communities, Stakeholders, and Government: Final Report of the Select Committee on Wellness to the Second Session of the 56th Legislative Assembly of New Brunswick. July 2008.

The professional role of massage therapists in patient care in Canadian urban hospitals – a mixed methods study. (2015). BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15(1). doi:10.1186/s12906-015-0536-4

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Impacts of Whiskey

The Impacts of Whiskey during the 19th Century

Introduction

The development of Whiskey had a significant impact on societies during the nineteenth century. Its introduction affected the norms in the community. Whiskey came as a result of civilization and industrialization. Its manufacture impacted the society largely by inflicting social evils and also generating income (Mitenbuler 559). Whiskey manufacture gave way to one of the biggest movements in history which are The Temperance Reforms and the play The Girl of the Golden West’ by David Belasco which sets out the impacts of Whiskey (Belasco 5). Its settings are all similar to the events that took place in the West during the 19th century. It thus serves as a significant tool in outlining the impacts of Whiskey during that period. Through utilization of the play as well as other sources, it becomes possible to derive the impacts that Whiskey elicited more easily which is very viable for scholars as well as researchers.

The Impacts Elicited By Whiskey Manufacture

Social Norms Breakdown

During the 19th century, the society prioritized on social norms and values with excessive drinking being prohibited. Following the increment in Whiskey manufacture, the society underwent dynamism where heavy drinking gained prevalence. The marriage institution was the most affected by the heavy drinking associated with the whiskey manufactured. For instance, in the West, saloons, gambling joints and brothels sprouted encouraging prostitution and other social evils (McClellan 561). Miners who were away from their families would engage in promiscuity which was against the societies norms. The heavy drinking also initiated adultery in families, and at times faulty drinks would cause death to the breadwinners. The reason behind this is the fact that majority of the people tend to become disorderly upon the influence of alcohol.

In the play, the majority of the miners come in to drink and gamble. Belasco shows this impact through the character Billy Jackrabbit (Belasco 5). He frequently visits the bar to pick up cigar butts and at instances resorts to stealing drinks. At one occasion as a shot is fired from the dance hall, Nick the bartender rushes to monitor the situation. It serves as an opportune moment and Jackrabbit goes for it. He grabs four cigars from the bar (Belasco 5). It’s a clear indication of the society’s level of moral degradation and how alcoholism has influenced individuals to immoral, unacceptable acts. Belasco captures the attention of the audience unconsciously on the negative effects of alcoholism showing how addiction gradually entices individuals to resort to crude ways to satisfy their desires (Belasco 5).

Women Movement

Drinking had the largest impact on the family unit as it led to the escalation in domestic violence in families. Alcohol also posed a threat as it rendered the breadwinner unemployed or even dead. Individuals had a minute concern about the values guarding marriage and instead could spend time in brothels with prostitutes (Gusfield 225). Women who were married to alcoholic people were left alone at home with very little to use while their husbands spent time with other women.

The inflictions led to the implementation of the temperance reforms which were led by women. The reforms started in the 18th century and continued all the way to the 19th century as drinking worsened with increment in manufacturers. They aimed to ban the drink from the states and inhibit promiscuity, heavy spending, domestic violence, and death. The heavy drinking affected not only the families but also industrialization. Drunkards were unable to perform their duties efficiently in factories and industries compared to their farming counterparts. It increased the potential for sacking which would, in turn, deny the families income. The temperance movement was however met by some resistance from the manufacturers and sellers as it posed reducing sales and thus limiting income generation. The lack of concern for marriage and family can also be seen from the play. Mr. Rance, the County Sheriff, has his eye on the girl. He proposes to her but she refuses her advances ‘Will you marry me’ (Belasco 21). He continues with his persuasions, but she continually refutes claiming that he has a wife in New Orleans. He is even willing to pay a thousand dollars for a kiss from the girl ‘Give you a thousand dollars on the spot for a kiss’ (Belasco 22).

Impulse Spending

Whiskey manufacturing initiated the Temperance Movement which was a reform against drinking. It was rallied by women and some alcoholics who were aimed at nullifying alcohol consumption in the UK and the United States. Drinking was associated with unnecessary spending as individuals could overspend on drinks. Heavy drinking would initiate poverty as the money on basic commodities would all be spent on drinking. The wife and children would be left to suffer while the saloons flourished (Rorabaugh 980). Majority of men resorted to drinking to combat depression and anxiety. The continuous drinking initiated addiction and abuse; the individuals could not perform their daily tasks without having a drink.

From the play, the character Trinidad is seen buying drinks for the others. Nick follows his orders by pouring out whiskey to the others; ‘Whiskey for everybody (Nick sets out whiskey and glasses, and the men drink) (Belasco 8). In the case, Trinidad is overspending just to please the others. Through the character, Belasco can spring out the true nature of a Saloon and reality of activities (Belasco 8). Individuals who go out drinking usually do not go out alone. One has to spend buying for themselves and others just to sustain the joy.

Violence Eruptions

Violence was also another significant feature of drinking. Drinking ended in brawls that sort to disrupt peace and harmony in the society. Alcohol manufactured in the 19th century was fusel causing the individuals to have serious hangovers and violent behaviour (Kosar 126). In the 19th century, urbanization and differentiated standards of living gave rise to crime and violence in society. The high alcohol consumption initiated bar brawls, domestic violence, and homicide. They were ways of expression as a result of the initiated social disparities in the society. The situation escalated in the Wild West which was highly characterized by violence, prostitution, and heavy drinking. The drunken individuals highly participated in bar brawls that seemingly ended in shootouts and deaths. Majority of criminal gangs moved to the West as gambling and drinking had made the region more prosperous. The rise in the whiskey manufacture also gave rise to the fake products which came to inflict harm on the consumers. Alcohol contents are a violence contributor (Gerson& Donald 310). Others argue that the violent nature is largely contributed by the drinking surrounding rather than the contents of the drink. They stipulate that the surroundings illicit moods and energy levels that when added together with high alcohol consumption serves to foster violence (Parker & Kathleen 295).From the play, ‘The Girl of the Golden West,’ Belasco shows the violence in his introduction on the Saloons setting (Belasco 8).

The music platform has an iron sheet meant to secure the singer against bullets in case of a brawl eruption. The precautionary measures taken against a brawls occurrence shows that there is always a high probability of disruption. Alcohol acts to distort the normal mental state where the illicit consumer behaviors which a normal minded person would not possess. The acts are as a result of the disorientation of the mind.

Gambling

Alcohol drinking is often associated with gambling. Drunken individuals were highly prone to engage in bets and poker. During the 19th century, some of the pioneering structures erected in the west were recreational facilities. They were meant to entertain the men where they served whiskey, allowed promiscuity and gambling. The three always went hand in hand in the west. Gambling was seriously prioritized just like any other profession.  Gambling initiated the development of many regions in that era, for instance, Mississippi and was highly associated with social evils (McClellan 559). Majority of the gangsters moved to the western regions as gambling had flourished the region. Some argue that gambling is not an evil but depends on the intents of the gamblers (Bloch 217).

In the play, Sidney Duck is portrayed as the best in playing poker as seen from the extract ‘An Australian known as “Sidney Duck,” fat, greasy, unctuous and cowardly. He is an expert at fancy shuffling’ (Belasco 4). This is a clear depiction of the association Whiskey consumption has on gambling. The Saloon business is financed by alcohol consumption and poker as seen in Rance’s conversation with the girl. She stipulates that she survives on proceeds from gambling and alcohol sales (Belasco 82).

Revenue Generation

In 1794, the American central government led by General George Washington fought against the whiskey tax resistance. The tax was meant to raise funds to finance the Revolutionary War debt. Apart from financing the debt, it was aimed at discouraging whiskey consumption in the American states (Mitenbuler 560). During the 19th century, whiskey production was a source of government revenue where the proceeds were used in running state affairs.

Whiskey sales served as a way of generating revenue in the 19th century. There are several instances that Belasco shows the income generating capability of whiskey in his play (Belasco 18). It’s seen when Minnie is advised by Ashby to bank with them as it would be more secure than her security. It’s stipulated in the extract ‘you must bank with us oftener, and then if this road-agent, Ramerrez, should drop in, you won’t lose so much,’ (Belasco 18).

Conclusion

Over the years, Whisky has had a large impact on society, both positive and negative. Whiskey manufacture has served as a recreational and revenue generation tool but also has inflicted harm on the society. Over the years, there have been cases of domestic violence, gun violence, gambling, promiscuity, and death all associated with alcohol consumption. The impacts were largely experienced in the Wild West during the 19th century. Whiskey has influenced the society as it has initiated some of the major movements in history, for instance, the Temperance Reforms; one of the biggest movements in history. Not only has it influenced society, but also it has been impacted. Reforms have enhanced gradual improvements over the years which have enhanced safety and regulated consumption. The impacts all depend on the individual’s decision.

Works Cited

Belasco, David. The girl of the golden west.Vol. 16551.1st World Publishing, 2006.

Bloch, Herbert A. “The sociology of gambling.” American Journal of Sociology 57.3 (1951): 215-221.

Gerson, Lowell W., and Donald A. Preston.”Alcohol consumption and the incidence of violent crime.”Journal of Studies on Alcohol 40.3 (1979): 307-312.

Gusfield, Joseph R. “Social structure and moral reform: A study of the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union.” American Journal of Sociology 61.3 (1955): 221-232.

Kosar, Kevin R. Whiskey: A global history. Reaktion Books, 2010.

McClellan, Michelle Lee. “America Walks into a Bar: A Spirited History of Taverns and Saloons, Speakeasies, and Grog Shops.” (2012): 558-559.

Mitenbuler, Reid. Bourbon Empire: The Past and Future of America’s Whiskey. Penguin, 2015.

Parker, Robert Nash, and Kathleen Auerhahn.”Alcohol, drugs, and violence.”Annual Review of Sociology 24.1 (1998): 291-311.

Rorabaugh, William J. The alcoholic republic: An American tradition. Oxford University Press, 1981.

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